This course views American history from the perspective of the great warrior tribes of the Northern Plains, from the early pre-horse period in the 1500's until present day. We'll survey tribes such as the Pawnee, the Crow, the Cheyenne, the Arapaho, and the Sioux, with particular focus on the Oglala Lakota tribe on Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. The class will highlight the importance of great warriors and chiefs such as Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Red Cloud, and Little Crow. Known as "the greatest light cavalry in history", we'll study the battle techniques of these brave and brilliant men. The importance of women's role in tribal life will be studied. We'll also look at the spiritual beliefs and ceremonies of the tribes, and how the Plains Indians carved out an existence out of a hostile environment. Finally, we'll study the successes and challenges of reservation life today.